Saturn was identified with the Greek Titan Cronos. Accordingly, he was also reported to have overpowered and castrated his father and then eaten his children until he was finally overthrown by his sixth child, Jupiter.
Belonging astrology and our solar system the children were the inner planets. After Cronos were defeated by Jupiter the outer planets (Uranus, Neptun, Pluto) were discovered. In astrology meaning Saturn stands for hard steady work and constant progress.
Saturn was a god in ancient Roman religion, and a character in Roman mythology. He was described as a god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation. Saturn's mythological reign was depicted as a Golden Age of plenty and peace. After the Roman conquest of Greece, he was conflated with the Greek Titan Cronus.
Saturn was especially celebrated during the festival of Saturnalia each December, perhaps the most famous of the Roman festivals, a time of feasting, role reversals, free speech, gift-giving and revelry. The planet Saturn and the day of the week Saturday are both named after and were associated with him.
The Romans identified Saturn with the Greek Cronus, whose myths were adapted for Latin literature and Roman art. In particular, Cronus's role in the genealogy of the Greek gods was transferred to Saturn.